Bildungsroman nedir? Bildungsroman özellikleri. Bildungsroman örnekleri nelerdir?
Bildungsroman terim anlamı:
Bildungsroman, protagonist yani kahramanımızın ahlaki ve kişisel gelişimine odaklanan edebi türdür.
Bildungsroman sözlük anlamı:
Bildungsroman Türkçe’ de oluşum romanı ya da gelişim romanı anlamlarına gelebilmektedir.
- In literary criticism, a Bildungsroman is a literary genre that focuses on the psychological and moral growth of the protagonist from youth to adulthood (coming of age) in which character change is extremely important.
- The term was first coined in 1819 by philologist Karl Morgenstern in his university lectures, and later famously reprised by Wilhelm Dilthey, who legitimized it in 1870 and popularized it in 1905.
- The genre is further characterized by a number of formal, topical, and thematic features. The term coming-of-age novel is sometimes used interchangeably with Bildungsroman, but its use is usually wider and less technical.
- A Bildungsroman relates the growing up or “coming of age” of a sensitive person who goes in search of answers to life’s questions with the expectation that these will result in gaining experience of the world.
- Usually, at the beginning of the story, there is an emotional loss that makes the protagonist leave on his/her journey.
- In a Bildungsroman, the goal is maturity, and the protagonist achieves it gradually and with difficulty.
- The genre often features a main conflict between the main character and society.
- Typically, the values of society are gradually accepted by the protagonist and he/she is ultimately accepted into society—the protagonist’s mistakes and disappointments are over. In some works, the protagonist is able to reach out and help others after having achieved maturity.
There are many variations and subgenres of Bildungsroman that focus on the growth of an individual.
- A development novel is a story of general growth rather than self-cultivation.
- An education novel focuses on training and formal schooling.
- An artist novel is about the development of an artist and shows the growth of the self.
- Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, by Ibn Tufail (12th century)
- Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (late 14th century)
- Simplicius Simplicissimus, by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen (1668)
- The Adventures of Telemachus, by François Fénelon (1699)
- The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, by Henry Fielding (1749)
- Candide, by Voltaire (1759)
- Emile, or On Education, by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1763)
- Geschichte des Agathon, by Christoph Martin Wieland (1767)—often considered the first “true” Bildungsroman
- Emma, by Jane Austen (1815)
- Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Brontë (1847)
- David Copperfield, by Charles Dickens (1850)
- Green Henry, by Gottfried Keller (1855)
- Phantastes, by George MacDonald (1858)
- Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens (1861)
- Little Women, by Louisa May Alcott (1869)
- The Adventures of Pinocchio, by Carlo Collodi (1883)
- The Story of an African Farm, by Olive Schreiner (1883)
- The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain (1884)
- To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee (1960)
- Sons and Lovers, by D. H. Lawrence (1913)
- Harry Potter by J. K. Rowling (1997)
- The Secret Life of Bees, by Sue Monk Kidd (2002)
- Looking for Alaska, by John Green (2005)
- Indecision, by Benjamin Kunkel (2005)
- Anathem, by Neal Stephenson (2008)
- Indignation, by Philip Roth (2008)
- The Idiot, by Elif Batuman (2017)
Bildungsroman Mini Quiz
Okuyabileceğiniz başka bir yazı > Audience nedir?
- The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 7th edition. Volume 1. New York: Norton, 2000. 2944-61. 2 Vol