Deductions with All Tenses

Deductions with modals and tenses
Deductions konu anlatımı

Deductions with All Tenses

Deductions with modals konu anlatımına hoş geldiniz. Deduction ingilizcede bir çıkarımda bulunma ya da sonuca varma anlamına gelmektedir. Yapmış olduğumuz çıkarımın kesinliğine, olasılığına ve zaman ilişkisine göre kimi zaman sadece yardımcı filleri kimi zaman da yardımcı filleri past participle yapısıyla beraber kullanmamız gerekebilir.

How certain are we? You can use these modal verbs:
100% – Completely or almost certain must, can’t, couldn’t
80% – Expecting to be certain should
50% – Maybe certain might, may, could

Deductions with Present Tenses:

We can use modal verbs to say how certain we are about a possibility.

These are the examples that show how mustmightmaycould, and can’t can be used.

Deduction with Must

We use must when we feel sure that something is true or it’s the only realistic possibility.

  • That must be her car. I saw that in her garage.
  • She must live near here because she always takes this road to go to work.

Deductions with might, may, could

We use might, may, or could to say that we think something is possible but we’re not sure about that.

  • She’s not here yet. She might be stuck in traffic.
  • He’s not answering. He could be in class.
  • Dear passengers, We are deeply sorry to inform you that some of our flights are canceled and some of them may be delayed due to bad weather.

Deductions with can’t

You can use “can’t” to inform when you feel sure that something is not possible.

  • They can’t be inside. We’ve been holding the door for hours.
  • You can’t know what they have talked about. You weren’t there.

Deductions with Past Tenses:

  1. If you want to make guesses or deductions about past actions or states you can use a past modal of deduction. We will form that with a modal verb + have + past participle also called the perfect infinitive.


  • You could have left it in your office.
  • I must have left the window open. That’s how the cat got in.
  • He can’t have left the office yet. It’s only 4 o’clock. He must be in a meeting.
  • I think I might have left the air conditioning on. Please can you check?
  • Police think the suspect may have left the country using a fake passport.

2. You can also make deductions about continuous actions or states In this scenario, we use a modal verb + have + been + ing form.


  • Why didn’t Sarah come to the party last night?
    -She must have been feeling ill.

3. The last one is for deductions using the passive. This time, we use modal verb + have + been + past participle.


  • His car could have been stolen in New York.



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