Discourse nedir? Discourse tanımı? Discourse örnekleri. Discourse türleri nelerdir?
Discourse terim anlamı:
Discourse kelimesi edebiyatta yazılı yada sözlü kullanılan her türlü iletişim formuna verilen addır.
Discourse sözlük anlamı:
Discourse kelimesinin Türkçe sözlük anlamı söylem, konuşma ya da anlatım olarak gösterilebilir.
Discourse denotes written and spoken communications. But the meaning of the term may change according to the different disciplines in which is used. In literature, discourse deals with a specific subject or field and is divided into different types.
Discourse, çeşitli yazar ve kaynaklarca farklı çeşitlerde türlere ayrılarak açıklanmıştır. Bunlardan bazılarını aşağıda paylaşıyoruz.
Types of discourse are also known as rhetorical modes or types of speaking and writing
- Argumentative discourse: It is a communication form that aims to convince the audience to change their way of thinking showing them that the writer or speaker is right on the argument. It may involve argumentative writings, political campaigns, or advertisements.
- Descriptive discourse: It involves communication that relies on the five senses to help the audience feel or experience something told in the plot.
- Expository discourse: Exposition is used to inform the audience about the facts with an objective language, It doesn’t involve any kind of persuasion or wakening an emotion. It may involve analogy, analysis, cause and effect, classification.
- Narrative discourse: It is a form of communication that tells a story (narrating) an account of events, usually places in the past. narrative discourse involves point of view, characters ( such as a first-person, third-person..), setting, plot, conflict, and resolution.
- Persuasive discourse: It similar to argumentative discourse. But in the argumentative discourse, the facts are used to support a more academic style
- Expressive: Expressive discourse applies to the acts of literary writing that are creative, but non-fiction. This could include memoirs, letters, or online blogs.
- Poetic: Poetic discourse applies to creative and fictional writing. Poetic discourse includes novels, poems, and drama. These types of work often prioritize emotion, imagery, theme, and character development, as well as the use of literary devices like metaphor and symbolism.
- Transactional: Transactional discourse is used to propel something into action, such as advertising motivating a customer to buy, or showing a customer how to use a product via a manual. This type of discourse generally does not rely so much on literary devices.
Note! If you notice, argumentative and persuasive discourse are very similar to each other. Please pay attention to the subtle differences given below.
Differences between argumentative and persuasive discourse:
- Persuasive discourse is more emotional and more aggressive, on the other hand, the tone in the argumentative discourse is calmer.
- Persuasive discourse may make claims without evidence but argumentative discourse comes with evidence for facts.
- While persuasive discourse ignores counterclaims, argumentative discourse welcomes the opposite views
From L’Allegro -John Milton
Hence loathèd Melancholy,
Of Cerberus, and blackest Midnight born,
In Stygian cave forlorn,
‘Mongst horrid shapes, and shrieks, and sights unholy;
Find out some uncouth cell,
Where brooding Darkness spreads his jealous wings,
And the night-raven sings;
There under ebon shades, and low-brow’d rocks,
As ragged as thy locks,
L’Allegro (the cheerful man) depicts a day spent in the countryside in cheerful activities, where the poet banishes Melancholy, invokes the Goddess of joy and other allegorical figures of cheerfulness. It ıs a good example of poetic discourse since it prioritizes strong emotions.
Farklı bir ingiliz edebiyatı terimi okuma için> Assonance nedir? bağlantısına tıklayın.
Martin Luther King’s I have a dream speech on August 28, 1963
“I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.“ I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today.”
Martin Luther King’s “I have a dream speech” is known best as one of the argumentative discourse examples. It is also known as a master of rhetoric. He uses many documents from American history, including the Declaration of Independence, the Emancipation Proclamation, and the United States Constitution. In his great speech, he tries to convince people to change the way they think. While he tries to do this, he deploys the fact and evidence. That’s why it should be regarded as an example of argumentative discourse.
Photo: By Minnesota Historical Society – https://www.flickr.com/photos/minnesotahistoricalsociety/5355384180/sizes/o/in/photostream/, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=19183908