Runes nedir? Runes ne anlama gelir? Runes örnekleri nelerdir? Runology nedir? Runic alphabets nedir?
Rune, Latin alfabesine geçişten önce çeşitli antik Alman dillerinin yazımında kullanılan, eski germen alfabesindeki harflere verilen isimdir. İskandinav türevleri are also known as futhark or fuþark (derived from their first six letters of the alphabet: F, U, Þ, A, R, and K);
Runology is the study of the runic alphabets, runic inscriptions, runestones, and their history. Runology forms a specialized branch of Germanic linguistics.
The runes were in use among the Germanic peoples from the 1st or 2nd century AD. This period corresponds to the late Common Germanic stage linguistically, with a continuum of dialects not yet clearly separated into the three branches of later centuries: North Germanic, West Germanic, and East Germanic.
No distinction is made in surviving runic inscriptions between long and short vowels, although such a distinction was certainly present phonologically in the spoken languages of the time. Similarly, there are no signs for labiovelars in the Elder Futhark
The term rune is used to distinguish these symbols from Latin and Greek letters. It is attested to a 6th-century Alamannic runestaff as runaand possibly as runo on the 4th-century Einang stone. The name comes from the Germanic root run-, meaning “secret” or “whisper”. In Old Irish Gaelic, the word rún means “mystery”, “secret”, “intention” or “affectionate love.” Similarly in Welsh and Old English, the word rhin and rūn respectively mean “mystery”, “secret”, “secret writing”, or sometimes in the extreme sense of the word, “miracle” (gwyrth). Ogham is a Celtic script, similarly carved in the Norse manner. The root run- can also be found in the Baltic languages, meaning “speech”. In Lithuanian, runoti means both “to cut (with a knife)” and “to speak”. According to another theory, the Germanic root comes from the Indo-Europan root *reuə- “dig”. The Finnish term for rune, riimukirjain, means “scratched letter”. The Finnish word runo means “poem” and comes from the same source as the English word “rune”; it is a very old loan.
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|ᚢ||u||/u(ː)/||?*ūruz||“aurochs” (or *ûram “water/slag”?)|
|ᚦ||þ||/θ/, /ð/||?*þurisaz||“the god Thor, giant“|
|ᚨ||a||/a(ː)/||*ansuz||“one of the Æsir (gods)”|
|ᚲ||k (c)||/k/||?*kaunan||“ulcer”? (or *kenaz “torch”?)|
|ᚺ ᚻ||h||/h/||*hagalaz||“hail” (the precipitation)|
|ᛃ||j||/j/||*jēra-||“year, good year, harvest”|
|ᛈ||p||/p/||?*perþ-||meaning unclear, perhaps “pear-tree”.|
|ᛉ||z||/z/||?*algiz||unclear, possibly “elk“.|
|ᛏ||t||/t/||*tīwaz/*teiwaz||“the god Tyr“|
|ᛚ||l||/l/||*laguz||“water, lake” (or possibly *laukaz “leek”)|
|ᛜ ᛝ||ŋ||/ŋ/||*ingwaz||“the god Yngvi“|
|ᛟ||o||/o(ː)/||*ōþila-/*ōþala-||“heritage, estate, possession”|
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